CCRD Glossary

Aggregate Lift 
Technique of utilizing aggregate and other materials to raise the height of the roadway. Typically used as a solution for prolonged flooding.

All-season Roads 
Roads that have a sub-base, base and surface of adequate thickness and composition to withstand year-round use of heavy vehicles without damage.

Asset Management 
Asset management is a systematic approach to selecting the best investment at the right time to maximize the life of the asset being measured.

Chip Seal
A surface treatment in which the pavement is sprayed with asphalt emulsion and then immediately covered with aggregate and rolled. Chip seals are used primarily to seal the surface of a pavement.
5-7 Year Service Life

Cold Milling
Removal of pavement material from the surface of a pavement structure to correct grade and cross section variations and to provide a uniform textured surface in preparation for a hot mix asphalt overlay.

Crack Fill
The placement of bituminous material into nonworking or low movement cracks to reduce infiltration of water and incompressible materials into the crack. Filling typically involves less crack preparation than sealing and performance requirements may be lower for the filler materials. Filling is often considered a short-term treatment to help hold the pavement together between major maintenance operations or until a scheduled rehabilitation activity.
1-3 Year Service Life

Crack Seal
The placement of a bituminous material into working cracks. Crack sealing requires thorough crack preparation and often requires the use of specialized high-quality materials placed either into or above working cracks to prevent the intrusion of water and incompressible materials. Crack sealing is generally considered to be a longer-term treatment than crack filling.
1-2 Year Service Life

Double Chip Seal
Two applications of chip seal applied to a prepared gravel base. Another chip seal should be applied within 1-2 years.
8-10 Year Service Life

Epoxy Overlay
An application of polymer epoxy followed immediately with an application of aggregate to a concrete bridge deck. The overlay provides a long-lasting seal to protect the deck from the effects of traffic and harsh weather conditions. Epoxy overlays are used to extend the life of a structure by sealing moderate to extensive deck cracking.
10-15 Year Service Life

Fog Seal
A light application of asphalt emulsion diluted with water and without addition of any aggregate applied to the surface of a bituminous pavement or recent chip seal. Fog seals are used to renew aged asphalt surfaces and seal minor cracks. When applied over a recent chip seal, the fog seal reduces dust and lock in aggregate.
1-3 Year Service Life

HMA Overlay
The application of HMA (hot mix asphalt), a combination of aggregates, mineral fillers, RAP (recycled asphalt pavement), and asphalt binder place over an HMA surface.
15-20 Year Service Life

HMA Paving
The application of HMA (hot mix asphalt), a combination of aggregates, mineral fillers, RAP (recycled asphalt pavement), and asphalt binder placed on top of a gravel surface.
15-20 Year Service Life

HMA Ultra-Thin Overlay
A thin overlay of hot-mix asphalt, typically a thin lift of ¾ inch. 5-7 Year Service Life

HMA Wedge
A repair patch placed by a paving machine that varies in depth and length.

Local Roads
County roads not classified as primary roads in the county road system. CCRD maintains 821 miles of these roads, including those in plats

Micro Seal
A mixture of polymer modified asphalt emulsion, mineral aggregate, mineral filler, water, and other additives, properly proportioned, applied to a paved surface. Also, utilized to correct rutting on high volume roads.
6-8 Year Service Life

Structural improvement roadwork, including placing a hard surface on a gravel road, reconstructing an existing road or bridge, resurfacing a road with a HMA overlay, or installing new culverts or catch basins.

PASER stands for Pavement Surface Evaluation and Rating. The PASER system is a tool to rate the current surface condition of roads.

Preventive Maintenance
Roadwork, including chip sealing, pavement crack seal, and wedging to preserve roads by retarding deterioration.

Primary Roads
Major roads within the county road system in Calhoun County. Primary roads typically accommodate 37% of the county’s road system traffic and include 492 miles of roadway.

A recycling process that grinds existing asphalt in place and blends it with the underlying materials to form a quality aggregate base. Typically, a layer of gravel is placed on top of the asphalt surface before grinding.

Removing the existing road surface and replacing it with materials of a thickness that conforms to current standards for pavement design. Vertical and horizontal alignment drainage improvements are also factors of reconstruction.
15-25 Year Service Life

Placing additional surface material or doing other work to return a road, including its shoulders, to structural or functional adequacy.
10-15 Year Service Life

Placing new bituminous pavement material HMA over existing pavement. Shoulder material is added to match the elevation of the new pavement.
10-15 Year Service Life

Road data geographic information systems software used to compile and report condition assessments. RoadSoft was developed by Michigan Technological University for all road agencies in Michigan.

Routine Maintenance
Roadwork, including winter maintenance, pothole filling, roadside mowing, pavement marking, traffic signal maintenance, dust control, gravel road grading, guardrail repair, minor drainage corrections, etc.

Concrete pavement broken into an aggregate base and the rubblized roadbed is left in place and used as part of the new pavement structure.