Calhoun County is located in southern Michigan, midway between Chicago and Detroit, at the junction of two major interstate freeways - I-94 (east/west) and I-69 (north/south). There are three populations areas within the County: the City of Albion in the eastern portion of the County, the City of Marshall in the center and the City of Battle Creek in the northwest corner. The City of Battle Creek is the largest metropolitan area in the County. The remainder of the County is primarily agricultural. There are 19 townships, four incorporated cities and four villages within the boundaries of the County.
The cornerstone of the first county courthouse was laid on October 22, 1837. The building was completed in 1838, at a cost of over $25,000, and included a jail in the basement. During 1875 a new courthouse costing just under $55,000 was completed. The present County Building was built in 1955, at a cost of $1,550,000, around the 75 year-old courthouse. The old courthouse was then torn down. The Justice Center, located in Battle Creek, including the Jail and Courts was dedicated on June 22, 1994 at a cost of $39,100,000.
The County is governed by a seven-member elected Board of Commissioners. In addition to the Board of Commissioners, the County has five elected officials: County Clerk & Register of Deeds, Drain Commissioner, Prosecuting Attorney, Sheriff and Treasurer; and ten elected judges.